likely to be true if...
likely to be true if ...
|Footnotes check out.
Argues from silence. Example: "No one saw JFK's
body from 12:09 to 12:23 so no one can prove that a UFO didn't descend
and switch bodies with an alien during that time."
|Evidence relates to conclusions.
||Requires amazing precision of action from people
who don't normally work together.
|Author admits weak parts of case.
||Claims all who have evidence to prove the case
have died under suspicious circumstances.
|Uses evidence from a wide variety of sources,
both mainstream and progressive.
||Uses evidence from far right-wing or far left wing sources uncritically.
|Follows the money.
||Uses the US Communist party, Bill O' Riley, Ann Coulter or the X-files as a source.
|Uses sources that are read by experts in a particular
field not just mass media sources.
||Assumes that corporations act in our best interests.
|Uses sources that provide evidence that works
against the interests of the source.
||Assumes that politicians act in our best interests.
|Has specifics and more than one or two of them.
||Assumes that wealthy people act in our best interests.
|Corrects previous mistakes the author made.
||Assumes that corporate officials, politicians and
the wealthy never act in our best interests.
|From a peer-reviewed journal or from a source known to publish credible evidence.
||Has a headline of the form "X to do Y"
This means X hasn't done Y.
|Treats contrasting views fairly.
||Makes assumptions from probability that are not likely. For example, says "isn't it obvious that a reasonable person would have done this" when it isn't obvious.
|Previous work by the author is known to be well thought of and proved reliable.
||Commits the "tree with no forest" fallacy - Wondering why one piece of evidence was not observed and acted upon when the person had thousands of other pieces in front of them at the time.
|The source is cited by other credible sources.
||Hides the methodology used or refuses to provide primary data.
|Last modified 9/28/06; posted 9/19/2000. © 2006 John P. Nordin